Divine Manifestations (Al-Mazahir al-Ilahiyyah fi Asrar al-‘Ulum al-Kamaliyyah) is the first English translation of Mulla Sadra Shirazi’s final work on divine metaphysics. Written at the request of his students who wanted a concise and accessible summary of his philosophy, Divine Manifestations exemplifies the rational theology Mulla Sadra is famed for. In Divine Manifestations, Mulla Sadra addresses the most gripping topics in Islamic theology in a thoroughly thought-provoking manner. This work represents Mulla Sadra’s ultimate metaphysical perspective; it is interwoven with his innovative Qurʾanic interpretation and is replete with commentary on, and indirect criticism of, the orthodox theology of his day. Combining both scriptural and philosophical reasoning, Mulla Sadra discusses the existence of God, His attributes, His acts, the Resurrection, and the nature of the non-material worlds. Divine Manifestations is a valuable work for anyone interested in reading Mulla Sadra’s argument for the harmony between philosophy, theology, and religion. Complete with extensive commentary in the classical style by later Islamic scholars, it is an ideal first read in Sadra’s philosophy.
One of the greatest philosophers in Islamic history, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) founded the transcendental school of philosophy (al-ḥikmat al-mutaʿāliyah). Born in Shiraz, Iran, he taught philosophy for many years under the auspices of the Safavid government before retiring to the village of Kahak for a fifteen-year retreat. During this time, he formulated his signature approach to philosophy, theology, hadith, and Qurʾanic exegesis – an approach which remains influential to the present day.